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Battle of Kadesh

Egypt of the Pharaohs. Date Late May BC [1]. The recovery of Amurru was Muwatalli’s stated motivation for marching south to confront the Egyptians.

The battle is generally dated to BC in the Egyptian chronologyhataille and is the earliest battle in recorded history for which details of tactics and formations are known. It is believed to have been the largest chariot battle ever fought, involving between 5, and 6, chariots in total.

Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt p. Dardania allies of kadehs Trojans, [47] northwest Anatolia. A Dd of Ancient Egypt. Journal of the Society for the Study of Kadesy Antiquities. Hittite references to the battle, including the above letter, have been found at Hattusaalthough no annals have been discovered that might describe it as part of a campaign.

Hittite records from Boghazkoyhowever, tell of a very different conclusion to the greater campaign, where a chastened Ramesses was forced to depart from Kadesh in defeat. Only with help from the gods did Ramesses II defeat his attackers and return to the Egyptian lines: He made an informal peace with the Hittites, took control of coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea and continued to campaign in Canaan.

Gardiner translates the title as “chief of suite of suite”. Healy in Armies of the Pharaohs observes:. Bryce suggests that, although it may have fallen once again under Hittite control, it is more likely Amurru remained a Hittite vassal state.


There are historical records that record a large weapons order by Ramesses II in the year before the expedition he led to Kadesh in his fifth regnal year. The Poem has been questioned as actual verse, as opposed to a prose account similar to that recorded by other pharaohs.

Healy, Qadesh BC: This is the first time they appear as Egyptian mercenaries, and they would play an increasingly significant role in Late Bronze Age history, ultimately appearing among the Sea Peoples that ravaged the east Mediterranean at the end of the Bronze Age.

Chief of the bodyguard [48]. The New Kingdom pp. An Encyclopedia of Battles. The New Kingdom p. This page was last edited on 10 Novemberat Somewhere between 23,—50, men Somewhere between 15, [7] —40, infantry [8] not bataillee Somewhere between 2,—3, chariots [8] Somewhere between 9,—11, men [9]. This process continued in the Nineteenth Dynasty.

Champs de Bataille II: La bataille de Kadesh | Board Game | BoardGameGeek

Indeed, the first scholarly report on the battle, by James Henry Breasted inpraised the sources that allowed the reconstruction of the battle with certainty.

The thin strip of territory pinched between Amurru and Kadesh kasesh not make for a stable possession. Egyptian Warfare with panel of three experts.

James says ‘This romanticized record of the Battle of Qadesh cannot be treated as a truthful account of what happened, and I doubt whether many ancient Egyptians would have accepted it wholly as an historical record’ p. Also significant was the presence of Sherden troops within the Egyptian army. This is especially true of Hattusili III, for whom the battle marked an important milestone in his career.


Outside of the inscriptions, there are textual occurrences preserved in Papyrus Raifet and Papyrus Sallier III bataiple, [45] and a rendering of these same events in a letter from Ramesses to Hattusili III re in response to a scoffing complaint by Hattusili about the pharaoh’s victorious depiction of the battle. Ramesses II describes his arrival on the battlefield in the two principal inscriptions he wrote concerning the battle, the so-called “Poem” and the “Bulletin”:.

Ramesses personally led several charges into the Hittite ranks together with his personal guard, some of the chariots from his Amun division and survivors from the routed division of Re. Now after days had passed after this, then his majesty was in Ramses Meri-Amon, the town which is in the Valley of the Cedar.

They have their weapons of war at the ready. Clash of the Warrior kings. As Ramesses was alone with his bodyguard and the Amun division, the vizier was ordered to hasten the arrival of the Ptah and Seth divisions, with the Re division having almost arrived at the camp.

In the fourth year of his reign, he marched north into Syria, either to recapture Amurru [19] or, as a probing effort, to confirm his vassals’ loyalty and explore the terrain of possible battles.

Led by its king, Talmi-Sarruma, grandson of Suppiluliuma I. The Hittite chariotry then rounded north and attacked the Egyptian camp, crashing through the Amun shield wall and creating panic among the Amun division.