The Bush- Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) is a standardised, quantifiable examination of catatonia designed to screen and diagnose. Tab. 1: According to the item Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS), here partially modified and partially reported, the severity of catatonia is. PDF | Objective: This article aims to describe the adaptation and translation process of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) and.

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A total of 34 patients were included in the study who reported at outdoor department of Mental Health Institute with catatonic symptoms. The clinician, however, may be challenged with some patients with katatonia who fail to meet this set of criteria but not others.

The rating scale is accompanied by a standardised examination procedure consisting of nine steps.

The Detection and Measurement of Catatonia

Rosebush et al[20] described the Kahlbaum criteria with more than two cardinal features with more than one secondary feature. Failure to identify catatonia may result in increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment response with variables of age, duration of illness and hospital stay and Bush-Francis score Click here to view. Curr Psychiatry Rev ;9: A search for newer treatment approaches to catatonia will require a rating scale that is sensitive to clinical improvement in catatonia without contaminating the rest of psychopathology.

His classification was quickly adopted into the psychiatric nomenclature. Final diagnosis of catatonia patients admitted in indoor Click here to view.


This has been done for other neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as Lewy body dementia. In the published literature, katatonia has staged a remarkable comeback over the past 15 to 20 years, with several rating scales catatonla, brain imaging and genetic studies, and neurochemical theories that underscore the importance of this clinical entity. Northoff examined this proposed rating scale and found it to have high correlation with other catatonia rating scales.

Rating scale and standardized examination. Leave a Reply Cancel reply You must be logged in to post a comment. Consequently, we feel that there is a need for a new rating scale to assess katatonia in autism and pervasive developmental disorders.

Complete Journal Archives Vol. Some patients would still score 3 to 12 points even when clinical improvement has occurred.

Cambridge University Press, The diagnosis of catatonia was made if the patients present with three or more symptoms out of twelve symptoms fulfilling the criteria of DSM Arq Neuropsiquiatr, 75, There is clinical evidence to suggest that failure to diagnose katatonia or provide effective psychiatric treatment may result in a poor outcome. For instance, Larner defines catatonia as a state of unresponsiveness with maintained immobility, posturing, mutism, and refusal to eat or drink.

They found the NCS to be valid and reliable for rating catatonia. A home of its own. Katatonia seems to be associated with a favorable prognosis, when diagnosed and treated promptly.

Northoff et al[9] performed extensive evaluation of the NCS and compared it to several rating scales.


Click here to access. Motor, volitional and behavioral disorders in schizophrenia.

Catatonia as a subtype of schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Press, Inc. Expanding horizons in catatonia research. Risperidone and lorazepam concomitant use in clonazepam refractory catatonia: Longer periods of observation are necessary for some catatonic signs to emerge, making it difficult to detect or identify catatonia during a clinic visit or a short hospital stay.

Cataronia scores of items 1 through 17 may not be weighted sufficiently to detect treatment effects. This may explain why the existing catatonia rating instruments differ from each other in terms of the definition and number of individual symptoms.

Int J Methods Psychiatric Res. Patients presenting with the following catatonic signs would not be admitted or treated if one followed DSM-IV-TR criteria; these include echopraxia, peculiarities of speech, stereotypies, mannerisms, and grimacing.

Catatonia in psychiatric classification: Recognition of catatonia requires application of a rating scale for catatonia.

The Detection and Measurement of Catatonia

Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum is best known for his description of catatonia. Assessment using the Modified Rogers Scale. Cambridge University Press; There is a need to replace these terms with more common and easily understandable terms or to provide concise and clear definitions.